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Definition of degradable plastic bags

by:XCBIO     2021-09-05
plastic bags can be divided into light-degradable plastic bags, thermal oxygen-degradable plastic plastic bags, biodegradable plastic bags, and partial resource-replacement degradable plastic bags according to the degradation pathway. The types are shown in Figure 1-5. According to the source of raw materials, it can be divided into petrochemical-based degradable plastic bags and bio-based biodegradable plastic bags. 1.2.1.1 Light-degradable plastic bags The degradation process of light-degradable plastic bags is under the action of natural sunlight, after a period of time and contains one or more steps, resulting in significant changes in the chemical structure of 'plastics' and loss of certain properties (such as integrity) , Molecular weight, structure or mechanical strength) and/or breakage. Photodegradable plastic bags require light conditions for their degradation. After the plastic waste is discarded, it is either left in a closed garbage disposal system (incineration, landfill, composting, etc.) or exposed to the natural environment with unstable conditions. However, it is difficult to guarantee the fixing conditions required for photodegradable plastic plastic bags. Therefore, in most cases, photo-degradable plastic bags cannot be completely degraded either in the garbage disposal system or in the natural environment due to limited conditions. 1.2.1.2 Thermally oxidatively degradable plastics undergo a period of time and contain one or more steps under the action of heat and/or oxidation, resulting in significant changes in the chemical structure of the material and loss of certain properties (such as integrity, molecular weight, structure or mechanical Strength) and/or broken plastic. Thermal oxygen degradation plastic bags are difficult to completely degrade in most cases due to the limitation of conditions. 1.2.1.3 plastic bags plastic bags refer to conditions in nature, such as soil and/or sand, and degradable materials (or) under specific conditions (such as composting), or under anaerobic digestion conditions, or water In the culture solution, degradation is caused by the action of microorganisms existing in nature, and finally completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO2) or (and) methane (CH4), water (H2O) and minerals and inorganic salts of the elements contained therein, and new biomass plastic. plastic bags can be divided into three categories according to their raw material sources and synthesis methods, namely petrochemical-based biodegradable plastics synthesized from petrochemical resources, bio-based biodegradable plastics derived from renewable materials, and blending of the above two types of materials. The resulting plastic. Because biodegradable plastic bags can be biodegraded under certain conditions, they do not increase the environmental load and are an effective way to solve white pollution. Ordinary plastics such as commonly used polyethylene (such as plastic bags), polypropylene (such as plastic tableware), polyester (such as beverage bottles), etc. cannot be biodegraded. Under the current common garbage disposal method, namely, sanitary landfill conditions, ordinary plastics will It exists for many years, and biodegradable plastics can be completely decomposed in a short period of time under composting conditions and return to nature. plastic bags can be composted together with organic waste (such as kitchen waste). Therefore, compared with general plastic waste, manual sorting steps are omitted, which greatly facilitates garbage collection and processing, thereby composting urban organic waste. Chemical and harmless treatment have become extremely realistic. (1) The use of petrochemical resources to synthesize biodegradable plastic bags. This type of biodegradable products plastic refers to a type of polymer obtained through chemical synthesis, such as polycaprolactone (PCL) and polybutylene disulfide. Butylene glycol ester (PBS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), modified aromatic polyester (PBAT), etc. (2) plastic bags derived from renewable materials ① plastics made from natural materials. Using natural biomass resources such as starch, plant straw cellulose, chitin, etc., the product is directly prepared through thermoplastic processing methods such as molding and extrusion. ② plastics in which microorganisms participate in the synthesis process. Use renewable natural biomass resources such as starch to directly synthesize polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, PHB, PHBV, etc.) through microbial fermentation; or produce monomers such as lactic acid through microbial fermentation, and then polymerize through chemical synthesis Materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and so on. ③Copolymer of carbon dioxide. Use carbon dioxide mine or use carbon dioxide waste gas produced in industrial production as raw materials, and propylene oxide or ethylene oxide to catalyze the synthesis of polymers. ④ The biodegradable plastic is prepared by blending. Products obtained by blending and processing the above biodegradable materials. 1.2.1.4 Compostable plastic bags can be under composting conditions. Due to the biological reaction process, plastic bags can be degraded and disintegrated, and finally completely decomposed into carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), mineralized inorganic salts and new Biomass, and the content of heavy metals, toxicity tests, residual fragments, etc. that form the final compost must comply with relevant standards. 1.2.1.5 Partial resource replacement plastic bags This type of material refers to a type of material made by blending renewable resource materials with plastics. At present, the market is mostly in the form of starch-based plastics and wood-plastic products. The total amount of starch-based plastics is about 80,000 tons, while that of wood-plastic products is about 100,000 tons. Due to the addition of some degradable natural materials to this type of material, if the blended material is a biodegradable material, the final product can be biodegraded; if the blended material is not a biodegradable products material, then although it has certain degradation properties, It cannot be biodegraded. Therefore, in a sense, it should be classified as bio-based plastics more appropriately.
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