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Microbial synthetic plastic

by:XCBIO     2021-09-07
There are more than 100,000 known microorganisms on the earth. These microorganisms are distributed in various places such as soil and ocean. Many of them store plastic in their bodies. The green cycle diagram of microbial synthesis of biodegradable plastic is shown in Figure 1-3. As can be seen in the figure, some microorganisms use renewable resources such as starch as raw materials and use them as carbon sources to synthesize plastics in the body. Such plastics are extracted and processed into daily plastic products. products enter after being used and discarded. Natural environment or artificial waste treatment plants such as composting plants are decomposed into carbon dioxide by microorganisms, which can be used for photosynthesis by plants. Turned into biomass resources, such as starch, etc., renewable resources can be synthesized into plastics again by microorganisms. Therefore, the recycling process is green. In recent years, as the greenhouse effect has increased and the waste problem is approaching, people pay more and more attention to the disposal of waste plastics. The main raw material of PHA is renewable biomass resources (starch, sugar, vegetable oil, etc.), and carbon dioxide Emissions are much less than that of plastics that generally use petrochemical raw materials, and it has good biodegradability, which has become a measure to solve global environmental problems. At present, the most researched and industrialized production is polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which is a biodegradable plastic stored in microorganisms, collectively called PHA, which belongs to biocopolyester. When the microorganisms are hungry, this ester can be broken down into energy by the decomposing enzymes in the microorganisms, which is equivalent to animal fat. The main varieties of polyhydroxyalkanoates are poly β hydroxybutyrate (PHB), poly β hydroxyvalerate (PHV), and their copolymers poly β hydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV), poly 3- Hydroxybutyric acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB4HB), etc. Polyhydroxyalkanoate not only has unique properties such as complete biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophobicity, good permeability, piezoelectricity, and nonlinear optical activity, but also has the thermoplastic processability of petrochemical resins. It can be processed by injection molding, extrusion blown film, extrusion casting, extrusion hollow molding, compression molding and other process methods to manufacture molded products, films, containers, and can also be composited with other materials. Its applications are widely used in high-end packaging materials, Various application fields such as drug slow-release materials that can be absorbed by the human body, implanted biological materials and other packaging, medical and health, and agricultural films. When the microorganisms are hungry, this ester can be broken down into energy by the decomposing enzymes in the microorganisms, which is equivalent to animal fat. The main varieties of polyhydroxyalkanoates are poly β hydroxybutyrate (PHB), poly β hydroxyvalerate (PHV), and their copolymers poly β hydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV), poly 3- Hydroxybutyric acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB4HB), etc. Polyhydroxyalkanoate not only has unique properties such as complete biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophobicity, good permeability, piezoelectricity, and nonlinear optical activity, but also has the thermoplastic processability of petrochemical resins. It can be processed by injection molding, extrusion blown film, extrusion casting, extrusion hollow molding, compression molding and other process methods to manufacture molded products, films, containers, and can also be composited with other materials. Its applications are widely used in high-end packaging materials, Various application fields such as drug slow-release materials that can be absorbed by the human body, implanted biological materials and other packaging, medical and health, and agricultural films.
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